Stomach cancer is considered a common disease in oncology, more common in elderly people, mainly in men. The process of developing a malignant neoplasm often proceeds asymptomatically for several years. Stomach cancer is often diagnosed in the mucous membrane of the organ, in any part of it. Over time, the tumor grows into the deeper layers of the stomach, after which it spreads to other organs – the esophagus, liver, lungs.
After the initial examination and clarifying diagnosis, treatment is prescribed. It depends on the type and location of the tumor, the stage of its development, the age and general condition of the patient.
In Belarus, malignant neoplasms are treated surgically in combination with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Gastric cancer can be polypoid or fungal, ulcerative-infiltrative or diffuse-infiltrative, intestinal, diffuse or mixed type, small-cell, squamous, medullary, hepatoid… In oncology, success in treatment depends on accurate diagnosis and the possibility of early intervention.
After the initial diagnosis with esophagogastroduodenoscopy, confirming or determining the diagnosis, computer or positron emission tomography, ultrasound, endo-ultrasonography, X-ray and laparoscopy are performed. After that, an ECG is used, ultrasound of the vessels of the neck and lower extremities is performed, respiratory reserves are evaluated – all this determines the possibility of surgical intervention in a particular patient.
After the operation and undergoing a course of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, a long recovery is necessary. As a rule, patients are prescribed physical therapy, therapeutic physical culture, dosed walking, swimming, and give recommendations about nutrition.
In the first stages, a tumor with a small area of the stomach is removed, preserving the organ itself as much as possible. In the later stages, a part of the stomach or the entire organ is excised, along with the surrounding lymph nodes. At the very last stage, feeding tubes are installed, obstruction phenomena are eliminated, and only if there is a threat to the patient’s life, an operation is performed to remove the stomach along with the tumor. All other treatment is supportive.
The surgical intervention lasts 2-4 hours, is carried out under general anesthesia. In many cases, the operation is performed by open access – a longitudinal incision is made along the midline of the abdomen or a transverse one-under the costal arch. Small tumors are often removed using a laparoscope-a tube with a small video camera at the end.
You can learn more about the stages of treatment and the cost of services in Minsk at an individual consultation with an oncologist, oncosurgeon.