Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignant processes of the endocrine system. You can suspect the presence of a neoplasm by palpation of the thyroid gland and cervical lymph nodes.
Thyroid cancer can be papillary, follicular, medullary and undifferentiated. All these forms differ from each other in biological, morphological and genetic characteristics. These differences affect the choice of treatment method, the success of which in oncology directly depends on the stage of pathology development and the accuracy of the differentiated diagnosis.
In Belarus, malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland are successfully eliminated with the help of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy in combination with taking medications.
In the oncology profile, the treatment regimen is prescribed based on the type of cancer and its features:
After the operation and any subsequent therapy, a long recovery is necessary. In Belarus, endocrinologists, nutritionists, and physical therapists deal with such issues. The first 2-4 weeks after surgery, activity is limited, but later the patient is prescribed medication, a low-sugar diet, regular walks in the fresh air, dosed physical activity.
The operation is performed under general anesthesia, during which the entire thyroid gland or most of it is removed. Complete excision of the tumor is performed through a small incision at the base of the neck, leaving an inconspicuous scar. Sometimes surgical intervention occurs through access from the armpit or the bottom of the oral cavity, but such methods are more traumatic. Removal of the thyroid gland is accompanied by excision of the organ tissues around the parathyroid glands with the preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerves.
In some cases, enlarged neck nodes may also be removed – this is necessary in order to check them for the presence of cancer cells. Half of the organ (one of its lobes) is excised if the tumor is still too small. The skin scar is formed 6-12 months after the surgical intervention, the swelling of the throat disappears independently after 2 months.
To learn more about how thyroid cancer is treated, what tests you need to pass before therapy and how much it will all cost, you can consult with an oncologist and an oncosurgeon.