Prostate cancer is a tumor that develops from the prostate tissue. In oncology, there are 3 forms of malignant neoplasms of this type-localized, locally widespread and generalized tumors. The latter type is considered the most severe, since it is characterized by the appearance of metastases.
In the early stages, men do not have any complaints. After that, over time, the first symptoms of cancer are detected – there are pain in the perineum, problems with urination, swelling, rapid fatigue. To detect prostate cancer at an early stage, it is necessary to pass a blood test for the amount of prostate specific antigen, conduct a rectal examination, and, according to the indication, do an ultrasound examination. These procedures will help with determining the volume and configuration of the prostate, identifying “suspicious” areas, assessing the state of the urinary tract.
The treatment strategy depends on the biopsy performed. With its help, you can find out if a man has cancer, how much the organ is affected by a tumor, how aggressive the cancer is.
The “old standard” of prostate cancer treatment in oncology is considered to be a radical prostatectomy. During the operation, the entire organ is removed, along with the seminal vesicles and nearby lymph nodes. In Belarus, such surgical intervention is performed using laparoscopy. The method is characterized by low traumatism, the absence of deep scars and scars, and earlier activation of the patient.
Additionally (or as an alternative), you can supplement the treatment:
In Belarus, radiation therapy is used remotely (outside the patient’s body) and intra-tissue (the method is called “brachytherapy”). This treatment is used to completely get rid of prostate cancer, in some cases this can be achieved even without surgery. Prostate cancer is characterized by dependence on the level of male hormones, so in Minsk they practice the use of hormone therapy aimed at reducing the level of male sex hormones – androgens.
The simplest and most inexpensive way to reduce the amount of sex hormones is the bilateral removal of testicular tissue. The method is unpleasant for many patients, so it has an alternative – drug treatment with the use of drugs that block the production of androgens.
Generalized prostate cancer is almost useless to treat – the present metastases significantly complicate the recovery process. Radical prostatectomy in combination with other methods of therapy gives a positive prognosis.
The operation takes 2-3 hours, is performed under general anesthesia, leaves small scars. The doctor excises the prostate affected by cancer, the nearby seminal vesicles and part of the vas deferens. According to the indications, the pelvic lymph nodes are also removed. After removing the tumor, the doctor stitches the ends of the urethra and the neck of the bladder with special threads. Next, a catheter is installed for easy outflow of urine for 1-2 weeks – during this time the wound will heal and partially heal. Then the patient will recover and make a full recovery.
You can learn more about treatment tactics at a consultation at the clinic. The information received from the patient will help determine further actions, choose the optimal method of therapy and calculate its approximate cost.